The Parah Adumah was burned on top of Har Hamishchah, which is Har Hazeisim, the Mount of Olives. (The ashes of the Parah Adumah-red heifer were used to purify people from Tumas Meis.) This place was located directly to the east of the Beis Hamikdash, as learned from the Passuk (Bamidbar 19:4) "Elazar the kohen shall take some of its blood with his finger and sprinkle it directly towards (אל נוכח) the face of the Tent of Meeting seven times". From the words directly towards (אל נוכח) we learn that number one, he sprinkled the blood towards the entrance of the Kodesh Hakodoshim, and number two, that the location he was in must be directly opposite the Kodesh Hakodoshim. (The face of a building is the door, although from the fact that the passuk does not just simply say door, we learn that over here it also means the most important part of the Heichal, the Kodesh Hakodoshim. In order to see the entrance to the Kodesh Hakodoshim, however, you had to look through the door of the Kodesh. [Tosafos Chadashim, Parah 3:9])
Leading from Sha'ar Shushan, in the eastern wall of the Har Habayis, there was a long Kevesh-כבש ("bridge") that led to the place where they burned the Parah Adumah, on Har Hazeisim. (The ashes of the Parah Adumah-red heifer were used to purify people from Tumas Meis.) This place was located directly to the east of the Beis Hamikdash, as learned from the Passuk (Bamidbar 19:4) "Elazar the kohen shall take some of its blood with his finger and sprinkle it directly towards the Tent of Meeting seven times.
The Gemara says (Yoma 31a) that the mikveh on top of Sha'ar Hamayim that the Kohen Gadol used on Yom Kippur was from a spring called Ein Eitam, which was 23 amos higher than the Azarah.
The Gemara in Zevachim (54b) says:
ה " Shmuel and David said: It is written: “Then you shall arise, and you shall go up to the place which the Hashem shall choose” (Devarim 17:8). This teaches that the Beis Hamikdash is higher than all of Eretz Yisroel... They did not know where the highest place in Eretz Yisroel was.
They brought the book of Yehoshua. With regard to all of the borders of the tribes it is written: “And went down” (see Yehoshua 15:10, 16:3, 17:9), and it is written: “And the border went up" (Yehoshua 15:6), and: “And the border was drawn from the top of the mountain to the fountain of the waters of Naftoach” (Yehoshua 15:9). The verse uses different terms to describe the borders of the portion of each shevet. And with regard to the shevet of Benyamin it is written only: “And went up” (Yehoshua 18:11), but it is not written: “And went down.” They said: Conclude from here that here is its place.
I have added sixteen pictures of the third Beis Hamikdash, as well as a new map of it.
My name is Mendel Lewis.
Hashem said to Yechezkel, "Its reading in the Torah is as great as its building. Go and say it to them, and they will occupy themselves to read the form of it in the Torah. And in reward for its reading, that they occupy themselves to read about it, I count it for them as if they were occupied with the building of it. (Tanchuma tzav 14)